W1: How much do you remember?
We can practice with the following sentences
- My father has breakfast at home every morning.
- I go back home in the evening.
- She combs her hair.
- My kids get up early from Monday to Sunday.
- My wife watches TV in the afternoon.
- They do their homework at night.
- My daughter has classes in the morning.
- I take a shower before breakfast.
- My son goes to the university every day.
- She gets dressed after breakfast.
Let’s look at this vocabulary about daily activities.
- Get up: I get up early on Mondays.
- Have a shower: You have a shower in the morning.
- Have breakfast: I have breakfast late on Sundays.
- Make the bed: She makes the bed.
- Brush your teeth: She brushes her teeth every day.
- Shave: He shaves every day.
- Comb your hair: I comb my hair.
- Get dressed: He gets dressed.
- Go jogging: I go jogging on Monday, Wednesday and Friday afternoon.
- Go to the university: I go to the university in the morning.
- Drive your car: He drives his car on Tuesdays and Thursdays.
- Work: Everyday, you work late in the evening.
- Study: He studies English in January, February and March.
- Do the cleaning: She does the cleaning on Saturdays.
- Do the shopping: He does the shopping on Sundays.
- Do the cooking: He does the cooking in the afternoon.
- Have lunch: My family and I have lunch together in December.
- Wash the dishes: Mr. Thomas washes the dishes on Fridays.
- Have a nap: My grandfather has a nap in the afternoon.
- Take the dog for a walk: I usually take the dog for a walk on Tuesdays.
- Read: John reads the newspaper in the afternoon.
- Go for a walk: My boss goes for a walk every afternoon.
- Do some sport: My father does some sport on weekends.
- Play in the park: Every year, my children play in the park in February.
- Listen to music: Luis listens to music in the morning.
Days, months and prepositions in/on
The prepositions «in» and «on» are used to express time and location relationships in English.
When talking about time, «in» is used to refer to a period of time such as a month, year, or season, while «on» is used to refer to a specific day or date. Here are some examples:
- In: I was born in October. We are having a party in the summer.
- On: I have an appointment on Tuesday. She was born on December 25th.
When referring to days of the week or specific dates, use «on.» When referring to a more general time period, use «in.»
In addition to time, «in» and «on» are also used to express location relationships. Here are some examples:
- In: The book is in the library. She lives in New York.
- On: The keys are on the table. The picture is on the wall.
In general, «in» is used to refer to a larger or more enclosed space, while «on» is used to refer to a surface or smaller area.
- I have a doctor’s appointment on Monday.
- My birthday is in July.
- We’re going on vacation in August.
- The conference is on May 15th.
- The concert is in October.
- Our wedding anniversary is on December 2nd.
- The school semester starts in September.
- I usually take a week off in February.
In general, «on» is used with specific days (e.g. Monday, December 2nd) while «in» is used with more general time periods like months (e.g. July, October) and seasons (e.g. summer, winter).
Let’s start with the days of the week.
Look at them! As you can see, the days of the week begin with capital letters.
Now listen to the pronunciation of the days of the week:
We usually use weekly planners to organize the activities for the week.
- I play tennis on Monday
Remember: The days of the week begin with capital letters
Listen to the twelve months of the year:
Remember: The months of the year begin with capital letters
Look and listen to these examples:
• I like January, my wife and I go to the beach in January.
• The carnival in Río de Janeiro is in February.
• They don’t like March because their classes start in March.
• They go to the university in April.
• I visit my grandmother on May 7th because it’s her birthday.
• The Inti Raymi festival is celebrated on June 24th.
1. We use IN when we talk
Parts of the day:
• I study in the morning.
• She works in the afternoon.
• They do their homework in the evening.
*Remember we don’t say «in the night», we say «AT
NIGHT». For example: I sleep early at night.
2. We use IN when we talk about:
Months of the year:
• My birthday is in August.
• She goes on vacation in January.
• They usually travel in July
3. We use IN when we talk about;
• I was born in 1999.
• She visited Perú in 2020
And 4. We use IN when we talk about:
• My mother travels to London in summer.
• I go to the university in winter.
• We play volleyball in fall.
• There are beautiful flowers in spring
1. We use on when we talk about:
Days of the week:
• I don’t work on Mondays.
• She studies on Saturdays
2. We use ON when we talk about:
• Her birthday is on November 20th.
• Christmas Day is on December 25th
Verb to be & Present simple
The verb «to be» is an important linking verb in the English language that connects the subject of a sentence to a predicate (the complement that follows the verb). In the present simple tense, «to be» is conjugated as follows:
- I am
- You are
- He/she/it is
- We are
- You are
- They are
- I am a student.
- She is a doctor.
- We are friends.
- They are from Spain.
Note that «am», «is», and «are» are the present tense forms of «to be» in the first person singular, third person singular, and all other persons (including the second person singular and plural and the third person plural) respectively.
- I am happy.
- You are my friend.
- He is tall.
- She is intelligent.
- It is a beautiful day.
- We are excited.
- They are coming to the party.
- I am not tired.
- You are not late.
- He is not feeling well.
- She is not hungry.
- It is not raining outside.
- We are not going to the movies.
- They are not happy with the results.
- Am I late for the meeting?
- Are you ready to leave?
- Is he coming with us?
- Is she feeling better today?
- Is it going to rain?
- Are we meeting at the restaurant?
- Are they enjoying the movie?
Note that when using the verb «to be» in interrogative form, we switch the subject and the verb. For example, instead of saying «You are ready to leave?», we say «Are you ready to leave?».
When do we use present simple?
The present simple tense is used in English to describe habits, routines, general facts, and things that are always true. Here are some common uses of the present simple:
- Habits and routines: We use present simple to talk about things we do regularly or as part of a routine. Example: I drink coffee every morning.
- General truths and facts: We use present simple to describe things that are always true. Example: The earth revolves around the sun.
- Permanent situations: We use present simple to describe permanent situations, states, or conditions. Example: She lives in New York City.
- Timetables and schedules: We use present simple to describe schedules or timetables for public transport, TV programs, events, etc. Example: The train leaves at 9 am.
- Instructions and directions: We use present simple to give instructions or directions. Example: First, you turn left, and then you go straight.
- Commentaries and sports reports: We use present simple to describe events in sports and other commentaries. Example: The striker shoots, and the goalkeeper saves the ball.
It’s important to note that present simple is not used to describe actions that are happening at the moment of speaking. For that, we use the present continuous tense.
Present Simple 3rd person singular spelling rules, he, she, it
In the present simple tense, verbs have a different spelling in the 3rd person singular when the subject is «he,» «she,» or «it.» Here are the spelling rules for verbs in the present simple with 3rd person singular subjects:
- If the verb ends in «-s,» «-ss,» «-sh,» «-ch,» «-x,» or «-o,» add «-es» to the base form of the verb. Example: He watches TV every night. (watch + es)
- If the verb ends in a consonant plus «-y,» change the «y» to «i» and add «-es.» Example: She studies hard for exams. (study + es)
- If the verb ends in a vowel plus «-y,» just add «-s.» Example: It plays music all day. (play + s)
- If the verb ends in a consonant plus «o,» add «-es.» Example: He goes to work early. (go + es)
- If the verb ends in «-f» or «-fe,» change the «f» to «v» and add «-es.» Example: She loves her job. (love + es)
Here are some examples of verbs in the present simple with 3rd person singular subjects:
- He runs in the park every morning.
- She brushes her teeth twice a day.
- It fixes problems automatically.
- He watches his favorite TV show every week.
- She studies math for hours every day.
- It goes to sleep at night.
- He has a good memory.
- She loves to dance.